Nutrition Related Diseases

OSTEOPOROSIS
With age calcium in our bones is lost quicker than it can be replaced, and as a result, our bones become weaker, increasing the risk for bone fractures.

Osteoporosis can happen at any age but is most likely in people over age 65. Dieticians aim to slow down or stop bones from becoming weaker.

A diet that provides enough calcium, together with vitamin D, will support healthy bones.
Maintaining a healthy weight and being physically active is a crucial factor in the prevention of osteoporosis.

Different calcium supplements and how they work:

  • Calcium carbonate is 40% elemental calcium, 1000mg will provide 400mg of calcium. Take this supplement WITH food to enhance absorption.
  • Calcium citrate is easier absorbed (2.5 times more than calcium carbonate, easier to digest and less likely to cause constipation/ gas, also less likely to contribute to the formation of kidney stones. Calcium citrate contains 21% elemental calcium.  1000mg will provide 210mg calcium.  It is more expensive, and more needs to be taken to meet recommendations compared to calcium carbonate.
  • Calcium phosphate is more expensive than calcium carbonate but less expensive than calcium citrate. It's easy to absorb and less likely to cause constipation or gas.
  • Calcium lactate and calcium aspartate are both more easily digested, but more expensive than calcium carbonate.

Vitamin D and Calcium supplements:

The adequate intake for vitamin D is 5 mcg per day men aged 31-50. Vitamin D is known for its positive effects on calcium.

Foods high in Calcium:

Food itemPortion sizeCalcium content (mg)
Milk (fortified with calcium1 Cup420
Milk1 cup300
Yogurt plain low fat¼ cup300
Cheese, hard28g240
Frozen yogurt½ cup100
Ice cream½ cup85
White beans½ cup100
Navy beans½ cup60
Pinto beans, chickpeas½ cup40
Almonds dry roasted¼ cup95
Whole sesame seeds1 tbsp.90
Tahini (sesame seed butter)1 tbsp.63
Brazil, hazelnuts¼ cup55
Almond butter1 tbsp.43
Sardines (canned) have with bones100g370
Turnip greens½ cup95
Okra½ cup75
Chinese cabbage/ bok choy½ cup75
Kale½ cup50
Broccoli½ cup35
Orange1 med55
Dried figs2 medium54
Calcium enriched orange juice1 cup300
Amaranth grain½ cup150
Whole wheat flour1 cup40
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