Nutrition Related Diseases
CHRONIC KIDNEY DISEASE
The kidneys’ main job is to filter wastes out of your blood to make urine. They balance the salts and minerals—such as calcium, phosphorus, sodium, and potassium that circulate in the blood. Your kidneys also make hormones that help to control blood pressure, make red blood cells, and assist in keeping your bones strong.
Kidney disease may lead to kidney failure. If your kidneys fail, you will need dialysis or a kidney transplant to maintain your health.
Beat Dieticians can assist you with managing CKD by recommending adjustments to your diet and lifestyle. We are skilled in developing an eating plan that considers individual food preferences, level of physical activity as well as special needs to assist you in reaching your goals. Our goal is to address nutritional concerns while protecting kidney function.
3 Minerals are in important to limit in your diet if you want to manage kidney disease:
|What is sodium||Sodium is the salt found in foods. If you consume high amounts of salt, it can lead to high blood pressure. To maintain your blood pressure, it is important to consume less salt by adjusting the way you cook and choosing lower salt/no salt alternatives.|
|Recommendation||1.8 – 2.5g/day for Dialysis/Non dialysis patients|
|Food sources rich in sodium||Salt: Aromat, Onion salt, Garlic salt, Stock cubes, Soup & Gravy powder, Chicken & BBQ Spice Sauces & Spreads: Tomato sauce, Worcester sauce, Mustard, Chutney, Chakalaka, Bovril, Marmite, Fish paste Pickles and salted food: Tinned vegetables, Gherkins, Simba Chips, Biltong, Bacon, Bully beef, salted nuts Biscuits, cakes, pies: Pies, Cream crackers, Salticrax, Cake Processed meat, take aways: Polony, viennas, Russians, Soya mince, Hamburgers|
|Hints of making food with NO SALT||FOOD||RECOMMENDED FLAVOURING|
|Beef||Dry mustard powder, thyme, sage, garlic, green pepper, onion, paprika, pepper, oreganum|
|Mutton||Rosemary, ginger, pimento, garlic, brown sugar, pepper|
|Chicken||Lemon juice, parsley, paprika, thyme, green pepper, onion, garlic, black pepper, curry powder, apricot jam|
|Pork||Applesauce, garlic, onion, sage, coriander, dry mustard, pepper, pineapple rings|
|Fish||Lemon juice, oreganum, parsley, dry mustard powder|
|Rice||Chopped spring onion and green pepper and parsley|
|Potatoes||Chopped spring onion and green pepper and parsley|
|Vegetables||Pepper, garlic, onion, lemon juice, curry powder, cinnamon or sugar|
|What is potassium||Potassium plays an important role in regulating the heartbeat. High potassium levels can lead to irregular heartbeat, numbness and tingling as well as weakness.|
|Recommendation||Non Dialysis: 1500 – 2000mg/d Dialysis: 2000 – 2500mg/d|
|Food sources rich in potassium||Fruit: Avocado, Apricots, bananas, grapes, mango, peaches, guavas, oranges, melons, paw paw, dried fruit Green leafy vegetables: Morogo, spinach, gem squash, tinned vegetables, tomatoes, butternut Drinks: Coke and all colas, juice, coffee, beer, wine, milkshakes Nuts & soya: All nuts, soya in any form Luxuries: Chocolates, toffees, fudge|
|What is phosphate||Phosphate with calcium helps to keep our bones healthy and strong. High levels of phosphate can lead to aching legs, itchiness and abnormal function of the lungs, eyes and skin|
|Recommendation||Non Dialysis: 600 – 1000mg/d Dialysis: 800 – 1000mg/d|
|Food sources rich in potassium||Milk: In excess of ½ cup; Inkomazi, Buttermilk Creamer: Tea & coffee creamers, artificial cream Cheese: Cheddar, gouda, Feta, Haloumni Organ meats: Tongue, liver, kidneys Luxuries: Chocolates, cakes, nuts, pizza, instant puddings, fudge, muffins|
Kidney smart seasoning mix: (Mix together in a salt shaker)
- 15ml dry mustard powder
- 15ml paprika
- 15ml garlic powder
- 7ml black pepper
- 5ml basil
- 5ml thyme
CKD WITHOUT DIALYSIS: Limit protein
For people not receiving dialysis, it is recommended that protein intake must be limited. Reducing the amount of protein and including more plant-based alternatives may reduce the loss of kidney function.
Recommendation: 0.6 - 0.75g/kg/day (50% high biological value)
CKD WITH DIALYSIS: Increase protein
Dialysis removes protein waste from the blood. A higher amount of protein in the diet is required.
Recommendation: 1.2g/kg/day (50% high biological value)